Action of vitamin K on bone health
Nowadays it is recognised that vitamin K plays an important role in bone health. It is necessary for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most important non-collagen protein in the bone), making the osteocalcin function. There are two important forms of vitamin K (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), which come from different sources and have different biological activity.
Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet with high levels of vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in older men and in women. However, controlled randomised clinical trials, carried out with supplements of vitamin K1 or K2 in the white population do not show an increase in bone mineral density (BMD) in most of the different areas of the skeleton.
Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fracture, but the clinical trials which include fractures as a final result have methodological limitations, so clinical trials with greater numbers of patients, and which are better designed, would be needed in order to prove the efficacy of vitamin K1 and K2 in relation to fractures.
In conclusion, we may say that there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women.
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